Skoblin's History Blog

This blog is composed of articles and translations written by Skoblin pertaining to the Soviet Security forces, White Russian underground movements and Russian counter-revolutionary forces during the 1920s and 1930s. Skoblin can be reached at

Friday, June 12, 2009

The Lockhart Case (1918) - Part III

Additional Testimony provided by K. D. Kalamatiano

Comrade Kingisepp – Cheka

K. D. Kalamatiano, citizen of the USNA [United States of North America], Russian-Greek by origin, has specialized in the study Russia and the Russian language since university (Chicago, 1907). Has been in Russia since 1905 (with the exception of yearly trips to the US and the years 1906 and 1907, when he was in France). While in Russia, he was in the constant employ of the Case Co., at the main office in Odessa. K. D. was in charge of operations until 1915, and was the main representative in Russia. The company specializes in tractors (for ploughing and threshing), road-building equipment and automobiles. In connection with company's operations, K. D. traveled around Russia and was especially acquainted with the work of the zemstvos and landed property. At the beginning of 1915, it seemed that a fortuitous moment had arrived for the establishment of new American enterprises in Russia. Having this in mind, K. D. left his former employ and went to the US, where he remained until the spring of 1916. In the US, he was exclusively engaged in attracting American firms to future activities in Russia, and – in connection with others – organized the International Co. of Manufacturers and Factories in America, working as the director – manager of this firm (9 Armyanskiy Alley). Due to the lack of orders, monetary difficulties, and friction with the American government, the firm did not experience success. On 1 October 1917, K. D. left this firm and accepted the post as the Russian representative for the trading company Klavdii M. Gankivel in New York, a firm which supplied automobiles and lorries to a wide number of enterprises during the war (primarily to the All-Russian Land Union).
In connection with the new complications which arose during 1917-1918, further operations became almost impossible. K. D. was engaged in the liquidation of the business, preparations for future dealings, and serious investigations in connection with the new situation in Russia.

Activities during the past 6-8 months

As a result of the political situation, it had become clear that private commercial activity was almost impossible, and the USNA, through the aegis of its commercial attache at the consulate (Gentington [Huntington]), entertained the idea of exporting goods required by Russia while importing Russian goods exclusively through state enterprises. Negotiations were conducted with cooperatives, with the commissar of foreign trade and so on, on the basis of bartered trade. K. D. was well-acquainted with the commercial attache and was also interested in this activity, both in the interests of his firm as well as for his own personal future. It became clear that the US knew very little about the internal situation in Russia and therefore K. D. took it upon himself to organize, in the name of his firm, an Information Bureau, whose purpose was to provide an accurate picture of modern Russia, both economically and politically. The political situation was extremely important for any commercial activity, since it would be impossible to operate successfully if the political situation was unstable. An issue of primary interest was the question of how much economic use Germany was making of the Brest peace treaty and so on. The issues under consideration were roughly as follows:
1. Transport – how much destroyed, freight capacity of the railways, the condition of junction points, how much of the primary communications system with Germany is operating (through the occupied areas to the Ukraine and so on).
2. Trade – how much is operating normally, what goods are required most of all, what can a certain area provide in exchange. How much have the new laws affected trade, how much influence do requisitions have on trade, and so on.
3. Banking – how will nationalization proceed, how are the banks operating in general.
4. Agrarian question – how successful has been the distribution of land, what influence has it had on agriculture, the general mood of the agricultural population.
5. Political mood – how strong is the new government, is agitation noticeable among other parties and which ones.
6. Attitude of the population: 1) to America; 2) to Germany
7. Is export-import trade occurring with Germany. How many shares is Germany purchasing, how much land and so on.
Also, there were special questions depending upon the region, local questions, such as the Mal'tsevskiye factories and other factories in Bryansk, the textile industry in Kineshma and Vladimir, flax in Rzhev and Smolensk and so on.
Recently, the question arose concerning the transfer of forces from Germany to Russia along the railways as well as the issue of sending raw materials and products of the textiles industry from Russia to Germany.
The area under investigation was initially limited to the front line region – Rostov, Minsk, Voronezh, Kursk, Bryansk, Orsha, Smolensk, Dno and Novgorod. Later, a section [of the Bureau - skoblin] was organized in the Ukraine (Rostov, Khar'kov, Poltava, Kiev, Odessa and the Crimea). Persons were sent to the Ukraine to conducted a specialized study concerning the status of the Ukrainian government, relations with Germany and Austria, progress in the export of goods from the Ukraine to Germany, the situation in the Donets Basin, factories and so on. Also of interest was the situation regarding the German forces and – in particular – their attitude towards and relations with the local inhabitants. The same was done in Belorussia and the Baltic provinces.
In Russia, individuals headed out from Moscow, with the latter comprising the center of operations. They were to live in the occupied areas and communicate by courier with Moscow, as well as with Khar'kov – which also comprised a center of operations.
In view of the possible difficulties (departure of the consular representatives and ambassadors, arrest of allies, and so on), K. D. decided on August 1 to settle in the country as a Russian with a false Russian passport (i.e. not his own). Moreover, he considered collecting information particularly in the Ukraine and Belorussia. During this period there were 8 persons in the Ukraine with 3 couriers, 1 in Minsk, 1 in Riga and 4 in Russia (not counting 2 in Moscow).
The persons drawn into this affair were all personally recommended to K. D. by his business acquaintances and were hired under the guise of the Klavd. M. Gankivel' trading company. K. D., in particular, tried to find persons not biased politically so that they could respond to given questions with absolute accuracy, to the point.
Payment was meager and there was nothing to prevent those who had been hired from finding other work.

Persons drawn into the case

5. A.V. Fride carried out several assignments. Then, having received employment in Moscow, remained here. His responsibilities included reading through accounts, making reports, rewriting the same on a typewriter and sending them to K. D.
24. Zagryazhskiy was recently invited in order to serve as Fride's deputy, in the view of the possible departure of K. D. He has not taken up these duties at present. He has provided several accounts and summaries of stories concerning Russian prisoners-of-war, who have fled from Germany through the occupied areas.
11. Potyomkin (2 brothers) had initially carried out 1 or 2 assignments. The older brother (who is in Kursk) then fell ill, and his brother was take on and worked in the countryside.
10. Volynskiy – has left.
8. Ivanov – recently went to Minsk-Orsha. At the end of August, having received employment somewhere, refused further work. Received payment.
12. Golitsyn had employment in which he carried out assignments. Has not gone anywhere as of late and was supposed to be paid.
7. Ishevskiy – one assignment, but proved to be undesirable. Was paid.
19. Solyus was recently hired on. Carried out one or two assignments.
Nos. 1, 3, 16, 17, 18, 23, 28, 20 and 21 (Ukraine)
No. 9 – Riga
Nos. 2, 4, 6, 13, 14 and 19 left according to circumstances and were dismissed.
Nos. 22, 26 and 27 – couriers
M.A. Fride was not used at all. She carried out one assignment for Mr [Smith] in connection with the army Red Cross. She recently carried a letter to an appointed destination, but it not considered as employed.
Special issues in this regard:
I. When it became conclusively clear that A.[the identitiy of “A” is not indicated - skoblin] and the Allied consular officials in general would be departing, I had conversations with Mr. Pull whether I should remain behind or not. On his advice, I decided to stay, as I took into consideration my future connections with Russia in the light of the my lengthy activity in this regard. It was reported to me that the representatives of the British and French consulates would also be staying and I was invited to meet with them if need be. This is, indeed, what occurred at the American Consulate on August 25, which is where I first met with Mr. Reilly and Mr. Vertamon. It was decided that I would provide them with a daily summary (especially in regards the Ukraine), which would be passed on to the consulate. I exchanged addresses with them and we spoke about the situation. Our organization had no other contact with them or with their organization.
II. The trip to Samara. In July 1918, K.D.'s wife set out to Belebey, in Ufa province, where her relatives lived, due to the high cost of living in Moscow. K.D. was unable to find out any information about her after that and became very worried. He decided to head out before winter, in order to find out what had become of her. He asked various acquaintances to assist him with the necessary permits and passes. In connection with this, A.V. Fride arranged an errand for K.D. in Penza (which was carried out) and provided documentation averring the non-political nature of the trip (this was a deception, in which K.D. persuaded Fride). This documentation, however, had only been signed by Fride, while K.D. provided the second signature himself. Through acquaintances, K.D. also received a commission from a cooperative, according to which he was to make all sorts of inquiries in Penza.
K.D. set out for Belebey, in Ufa province, departing from Moscow of August 30 and returning on the 18th [of September] (19 in total, including 13 on the road). In Belebey, he found his wife and took care of personal affairs. Having been arrested in Syzran', he had to go to Samara in order to obtain a document from a consular official. Being interested, naturally, in the state of affairs, K. D. had a meeting with the French consul and brought back several letters of a purely personal nature on behalf of the consul and others.
K.D. was arrested upon his return to Moscow in the courtyard of the former American consulate.
All the above-mentioned testimony may be corroborated by witnesses.
III. V.N. Zhukovskiy and I were acquaintances from childhood in Switzerland. He is a close friend and had nothing to do with my activities. I lived with him for a short time after I had sold my apartment.


I consider myself guilty for remaining in Russia under someone else's passport.
I consider the activities of my organization to be completely harmless, as the organization pursued no military, political or anti-government goals. Those persons, who had been drawn into this activity, were specially instructed not to impart or propagate their own opinions, but to report the simple facts, as this activity could have great value for future relations with the USNA [United States of North America – skoblin].
There were no contacts with any organizations, Allied or Russian, with the exception indicated on page 3/1. Otherwise, K.D. always endeavoured to find out the perspective, plans and so on, of various parties, their orientation, strength and so on.
Repeating that which has been indicated earlier, it would appear, that in connection with the current situation, i.e., the lack of an American consulate and so on, K.D. and his organization:
1) acted unofficially, but 2) since K.D. was known as an American businessman, was well-acquainted with Russia and was undoubtedly unconnected with any party and generally interested in future relations with America, he could be of further use even now during potential negotiations and so on. It should be stressed that the US lack correct information and that it must rely exclusively upon information from others.
In any case, K.D. has stressed once more that the persons, employed by his organization, were in no wise guilty of any anti-government activities, since only he himself knew its actual purposes.

Monetary aspects

Some 100,000 was allocated for the activities [of the organization] and was located as follows: 50,000 roub. with A.V. Fride, 20,000 with A.A. Zagryazhskiy, with part of the remainder being sent to the Ukraine, while the rest was with K.D. The sums mentioned above were held by the indicated persons for safekeeping.

Signed K.D. Kalamatiano
15/X – [19]18.

It turned out that Kalamatiano, in creating his organization, had already taken measures to ensure the protection of its members against the retribution of the revolutionary proletariat in case of any failure. All of them were instructed to say that they were employed in an exclusively commer[cial] organization, [collecting information] of a political nature about Russia. Typical of those who were arrested, though, was not to admit to belonging to Kalamatiano's organization until Kalamatiano himself was arrested and - once the names of all of his collaborators had been decoded – they were forced to admit their attachment to this organization under the weight of evidence. All of them knew perfectly well, that their organization bore a criminal nature in regards the revolution, and they endeavoured to conceal everything until, under the weight of evidence, they began to relate the story imparted to them by their master.
As an example, I will cite several of the aforementioned affidavits.

Affidavit from Aleksandr Andreevich Zagryazhskiy

25 September 1918.
During the first few days of July of this year, according to the new style, A. Vl. Fride, who had related to me earlier that he was working for some sort of American firm, invited me to take part in the collection of political and economic information for the Americans. The understanding was that the America intended to enter into close economic relations with Russia upon the conclusion of the world war.
I stated that I did not have any influential or authoritative acquaintances in those areas of interest, that my circle of acquaintances was extremely limited and that I had neither the time nor the inclination to subject them to questioning for the sake of information. A.V. Fride responded by saying that any rumours being circulated would be valuable and that even foolish rumours sometimes possess a small portion of truth, while complete foolishness is always disclosed through comparison with others [other rumours - skoblin]. I requested time to consider.
Being neither a politician nor an economist, my line of reasoning was roughly as follows: we were not in a state of hostility with America – at least not open hostility at that time – and after the war, Russia would require vast material resources, which only America could provide, having entered the war later than other countries and being wealthier than them. Thus, I saw nothing either criminal or even improper in such information.
I agreed and in early July, new style, possibly July 7, I was introduced to Kalamatiano at Fride's apartment. During this encounter, I repeated my arguments that I would be a poor informant considering my lack of extensive knowledge and authority regarding economic issues. The same considerations, however, were repeated to me concerning the value of any news or information making its rounds. After meeting Kalamatiano at Fride's apartment, I saw him around 20 times in total. I was at his apartment twice, once at Kudrinskaya Sadovaya and another time when he lived not far from Fride (I do not remember the name of the street). I was at his apartment for only a very short time, having dropped by in order to go to Fride's.
There was nothing conspiratorial in these meetings: I would drop by during the daytime, and took no measures to conceal my visits. On some occasions, I would arrive at Fride's and find Kalamatiano there; on other times I would leave earlier than him and sometimes we would leave together. Several times he would see me off [text is ambiguous here – may be translated “he would accompany me to Fride's apartment”, “accompany me leaving Fride's apartment” or “would see me off” - skoblin] During these meetings, the conversations would consist of relating stories concerning the news and rumours and commenting on them. In a word, the conversations did not depart from being typical mundane conversations regarding current events. On some occasions, I would relate about the horrible conditions of confinement of our prisoners [this being Russian prisoners confined by Germany - skoblin], or about exceptional or curious events, such as the miraculous recovery of one of our soldiers the day following his arrival in Moscow. I would also relate about the desire of prisoners to make their way home quickly. But I declare, that I never inquired about the political mood of the prisoners and therefore could not report anything in this regard. The mood of the prisoners was unknown to me.
I should mention that neither Fride nor Kalamatiano discussed payment with me. In early August, new style, while in Fride's study and in the presence of Kalamatiano, Fride handed me 750 roub. for work. This occurred possibly on August 7. I took the money, but in my heart I did not feel like I had earned it. Perhaps, this is how things are done in business circles, I thought to myself, but I was used to a more basic understanding of work. I decided to bide my time, while keeping the sum of money for payment. Later, Fride, and it seems Kalamatiano as well, advised me to take on collaborators [informants - skoblin], to receive their reports and to compile summaries of them, in case Fride and Kalamatiano were absent. One time, I was presented with 5-10 thous. roub. (for safekeeping). I do not remember the actual amount. I categorically refused, for I have never liked and do not like to hold other people's money. The matter was dropped and the money was not given to me.
When Kalamatiano was leaving for Penza, he and Fride spoke to me again about the possibility of compiling summaries and dispatching them, in case Fride was absent, which Fride had brought up once before. To my relief, I never saw a single collaborator [informant] nor any reports, never compiled any summaries and never delivered any packages containing documents. I stated “to my relief”, because I see now that such actions would have complicated my current situation regarding this matter, whereas at the time I had perceived nothing improper in this activity. It was at approximately this time that I was 20 thous. roub. for safekeeping and for issuing payments to collaborators. The details concerning these payments were to be relayed to me by Fride. The collaborators were signified by numbers, as were their corresponding reports, according to which I was to know them. Perhaps, Fride was also supposed to relate to me their names, but this was not done.
After Kalamatiano's departure, I saw Fride once, as far as I can recall. In connection with the 20 thous. roub. that was entrusted to me, for which – I repeat – I had a dislike, as I do not like to hold other people's money, occurred the matter of Kalamatiano changing his name to Serpovskiy. This struck me as being conspiratorial, and thought arose of declining further participation in this activity. For three days, I attempted to do this. As far as I remember, these attempts were made on August 29, 30 and 31, new style (Thursday, Friday and Saturday).
On August 29, I went to Fride's and knocked on his window (the bell was not working) and received absolutely no answer. On August 30, Fride's elderly mother opened the door and told me that A. V. was not at home. After asking her where it would be possible to get milk (she suggested through her), I left. On August 31, while on my way to the Prisoners' Board on B. Nikitskaya [Bol'shaya Nikitskaya street – skoblin], in order to hand in termination notes [tetradei okonchonnikh], I ran right into Mlle. Fride near the square at the entrance to Trubnikovskiy Alley (with my short-sightedness, I would not have recognized her if we had not bumped into each other). After exchanging greetings, I told her that I had dropped by the apartment twice but had been unable to find A.V. at home, on one occasion (Thursday) not even receiving an answer. After telling her that I planned drop by today as well, she told me that A.V. Would not be home, but that she could pass on a message if needed. I responded by saying that I would come by another time myself. I suggested Tuesday evening, but he was arrested the night before. Now I have doubts whether this occurred on August 30, 31 and September 1, but I believe that the first dates – August 29, 30 and 31 – are more accurate.
I saw Mlle. Fride perhaps 5 or 6 times in total, no more – generally when she answered the door.
Kalamatiano explained his decision to change his name as arising from his desire to remain in Russia in order to continue his work of collecting economic information. In other words, he wished to continue in his endaevours, even though he – as an American – was required to leave Russia, as all the Americans were.
I not only intended to notify Fride of my refusal to accept further work, but also to hand back the 20 thous. roub. as well as the 750 roub., since I felt I had done no work since August 7, other than hang on to the 20 thous. for around a week or so. In conclusion, I may state further, that I made no new acquaintances in connection with my participation in this activity. I made no excursions, either in regards this employment or in addition to it (I do not consider the instances in which I dropped in on old acquaintances). And I continued to serve with an institution, which has no secrets, for this institution collects information regarding the condition of our imprisoned soldiers, about which all of Russia has been apprised for a long time from newspapers of the most varied outlook. The desire of the prisoners to make their way home quickly is quite natural and understandable, but this sort of information, however, has no price.
I did not know where Fride worked, nor do I know even now. I was never there. As indirect evidence that I had no dealings with collaborators [informants], I may mention the fact that the 20 thous. remained in the same one thousand note bills as when I received them. I may also suggest, that if my apartment had been put under observation, it would have been found out that no informants had approached me. Essentially, my participation in this matter remained at the level of preliminary conversations and did not depart from these limits, with the reservation that the purpose of this information – as I understood it – did not constitute anything improper or criminal against the people or the Soviet state.

Aleksandr Andreevich Zagryazhskiy

In one of my statements I was mistaken. I once presided over a political case in the spring of 1916, in Voronezh. A peasant was tried on the charge of apparently belonging to a peasant brotherhood in Nizhnedevitsk. He was acquitted. This trial constituted a small part of a large case, examined earlier in 1907-1909 under the chairmanship of the judge, Duble.

A. Zagryazhskiy

Affidavit from Aleksei Vasilievich Potyomkin

Having recently graduated from a secondary educational institution and with the harsh life and high cost of living of the present day, I, Aleksei Vasilievich Potyomkin, considered it my responsibility to find work in order to help provide for my mother and father as much as possible. Circumstances arose thus, that an old acquaintance of my parents, Aleksandr Vladimirovich Fride, living in the city of Moscow and having employment, the precise nature of which I did not know, offered me a position, saying that I would receive good pay. Naturally, while telling me stories about this work, Aleksandr Vladimirovich Fride also stated that there was nothing improper involved in it. At the same time, he gave me the address of a certain Ksenefont Dmitrievich Kalamatiano, with whom I would have to meet, and did, in fact, meet with twice, albeit briefly: once, at the office of William Hinns [William Camber-Higgs - skoblin], I believe, while the second more or less took place at Aleksandr Vladimiriovich's own apartment.
Upon arriving in Moscow on September 2, and proceeding to Mr. Fride's residence to take up my duties, I was arrested by a man who subsequently told me that he was an official from the Cheka and that he was arresting everyone who was arriving at the residence of the known counter-revolutionary, Fride.
On the evening of September 2, I was taken to the Cheka, where I was questioned several times. They asked me what sort of understanding I had of the work I was involved in. I stated that it was purely commercial and was far removed from politics, which I had never engaged in. If I were to be subsequently released, I would place myself far away from it, since in the present circumstances I have neither the right nor the ability to risk my life. I know that I was to provide information concerning the condition of trade and industry in Russia for an American industrial concern. As for payment, I sometimes received an advance from Aleksandr Vladimirovich Fride of approximately 600 roub. give or take.
I am always ready to provide testimony in more detail in the belief that I will not be sentenced.

A. Potyomkin
28 September 1918.

In his initial testimony, Potyomkin denied either knowing Kalamtiano or having done any work for him. He claimed that he had come to Moscow on account of illness and had gone to Fride's in order to relay greetings from his parents.
It is necessary to present one more affidavit, that from Ishevskiy.

Affidavit from Ishevskiy

In the middle of April of this year, I, the undersigned, journalist Dmitrii Aleksandrovich Ishevskiy, learned through my acquaintances, the Nikifaraks [probably Nikiforuks - skoblin], that the representative of a certain American transport firm was looking for various agents for the collection of purely commercial information. Since I found myself in straitened material circumstances at that time on one hand, and generally enjoyed traveling on the other, I was glad to offer my services to this American. I requested an introduction and received it in the form of a calling card belonging to a Mr. Angin. With this card, I headed off to the indicated address (23 Sadovaya Kudrinskaya, apt. 23) and offered my services to Mr. K. D. Kalamatiano. He greeted me very amicably and was obviously very glad of the fact that I was a journalist, to wit, that their transportation firm needed information dealing exclusively with transportation issues, since (in his words) their firm “Nankvil' and Co.” intended to import some sort of goods into Russia. He requested that I drop in on their (now deceased) consul and personally inquire about the credit worthiness of this firm and its purely commercial activity. For payment, I was offered 600 roub. a month and a daily rate of 20 roub.
Incidentally, he led me to believe that the work would be on-going (no less than 2 or 3 months). I did not go to the consul, being satisfied with the look of the official American stamp placed on the authorization pass that was issued to me.
Roughly a week later, I departed for the town of Ryazan', intending to head to Voronezh. However, I did not make it there, deciding to take advantage of these 2 or 3 weeks and rest at my father's residence in Samara province. And so I did. Three weeks later I returned to Moscow and called on Kalamatiano. He suggested that I provide a written report about my trip and promised to bring me the format for the report that same evening. He did in fact bring me this format and then urgently parted ways, requesting that I drop by his apartment with the report.
Becoming acquainted with the format, I perceived that their firm was more akin to an espionage organization and I decided to write the report in the most general terms, using newspaper information as a guide. Three days later I handed him the report and learned the disconcerting news that I was being let go. The explanation given was that the firm was temporarily shutting down. I was very disheartened by this and was determined to obtain the money that was owed me on the strength of his promises. Thus, I sent him a letter demanding money for the 2 – 3 months work that had been promised. His reply is known. I then decided to make the entire story public and offered it to the editor of the newspaper “Mir”. The editor regarded my proposal sympathetically and this matter was to have been decided in the next few days.
In conclusion, I have the honour of pointing out especially the following circumstances of this case: upon returning from my “sham assignment”, that is, up until my acquaintance with the format for the my report, I did not know about the character and purposes of the work offered me by Kalamatiano. If I have given him an altogether insignificant report, it was only out of a desperate need for money.

D. Ishevskiy
25/IX – [19]18.

In addition to his testimony, Ishevskiy also provided the VChK information concerning the nature of Kalamatiano's organization described in the following letter.

Letter from Ishevskiy to Kalamatiano

2/VI – [19]18.

Dear Sir.
Ksenefont Kalamatiano

I believe the time has come to resolve the issues concerning our joint endeavour. And therefore, I would like to express myself in a straightforward fashion. The substance of my report, as you yourself are aware of, departed significantly from that which you initially indicated to me. This, of course, did not come as a surprise to me. From the very beginning, I concluded that the “firm” and “conditions of transport” were nothing other than a mask used to conceal political and military espionage. And it was in this vein that I began conducting observations during my assignment.
But what was my surprise when I returned to Moscow and discovered that my services were no longer required. Having obtained what you required, and paying a pittance, which a courier for one of the current ministries would have received, you now rest content... A man, who risked much in the hope of future prospects, experienced arrest, worked on composing a comprehensive detailed report on Russian life and all for 600 then sent away. This, despite repeated assertions on your part that my work with you would continue and there there was some sort of “future”. No, other governments do not treat their secret agents in such a manner.
In full awareness of my moral right and documentary proof, I demand restitution. If my work with you has come to an end, then I wish (and this desire is fully legal, and I am prepared to support it by all means at my disposal) to obtain my recompense for three months. This amounts to 4500 roub. on the basis of 600 roub. basic pay [600 roubles per month – skoblin] and 30 roub. per day. It would certainly be excessive on my part to waste so many words on this, if I was not confident in the satisfaction – I repeat – of my modest and just demands. Without a doubt, you are aware of the fact that Russia, at the present time, is of interest not only to your own country, but also to that coalition that stands hostile to you... And this is something you should reflect upon.
And so, I will wait for you for three days between 4 and 6 in the evening or for your notice with instructions of a time and place where we can meet.
It need not be said, that upon the conclusion our financial transaction, I will immediately return all documents, drafts and other materials in my possession. With proper acknowledgment and my word of honour, it will be as if we never met.

With deepest full respect
D. Ishevskiy

PS. I hereby relay to you the following newspaper issues in which my articles are published: “Zarya Rossii” No. 33 from 30-17 May 1918 and current issue of the newspaper “Zhizn'”.


As is obvious from Ishevskiy's letter, he new perfectly well why Kalamatiano had recruited him. What is more, he knew that he caught Kalamatiano in a trap. He knew that he could threaten Kalamatiano and acquire money as a result. And like a born blackmailer, Ishevskiy indeed carried this out. He not only threatened Kalamatiano, he even offered his services to the editor of the bourgeois newspaper “Mir” which had German sympathies. Ishevskiy wrote in a letter to the editor that he had materials in his possession which related to military and political espionage in Russia.

Letter from Ishevskiy to the Editor of “Mir”

To the editor of the newspaper “Mir”
Dear Sir.

I have in my possession interesting documents, which relate to an area which is rarely touched upon in the press: foreign military and political espionage in Russia.
I have been lucky enough to come into very close contact with one such secretive operation being conducted by “Allied” diplomacy, specifically, the Anglo-Americans.
Being of a mind to offer your newspaper this sensational documentation, I humbly request that you notify me through the above mentioned address of a time and place where we could meet to discuss this matter.

In expectation of your response
With deepest respect

In his response to Ishevskiy's threats, Kalamatiano attempted to extricate himself by stating once again that his organization was not criminal and so on.

Letter from Kalamatiano to Ishevskiy

Moscow, 4 June 1918.
Mr. Ishevskiy
Dear Sir

Your letter from the 2nd of this month has rather surprised me. Due to your youth, you still have an apparently romantic outlook and have envisaged some sort of secret mission in our simple desire to be apprised of the possibility of exporting goods from Russia.
Nevertheless, considering your youth, allow me to explain to you, that you were taken on for one month, have received payment, and agreed to part company and you may have no further demands.
Since you were recommended to me, I will not consider your letter as being a typical example of blackmail of a nature such that others would probably perceive and in response to which they would employ quite different measures.

Respectfully yours,
K. D. K.

During this time, Ishevskiy had already received a response from the editor of “Mir”, having approached the paper for the purpose of acquiring a healthy reward for his services to this German sympathizing newspaper. As is readily apparent, Ishevskiy demanded much and haggled for a long time.

Letter from the Editor of “Mir” to Ishevskiy

Daily newspaper “Mir”
September 12, 1918.

Dear Dmitrii Aleksandrovich
I have been urgently summoned to a meeting with shareholders today and once again am unable to meet with you.
Iv. Mikh. has been delegated to meet and conclude terms with you. My opinion regarding your articles has not changed: they are interesting and lively, but do not contain material of either a secretive or sensational nature that would justify exceptional terms.
Moreover, as I already noted yesterday, the slant of your articles runs opposite to the nature of our paper, which supports Soviet policy in foreign relations.
Regarding the extraordinary documents about which you have spoken (Anglo-American espionage), I propose that we enter into special discussions regarding the presentation and inspection of the documents you have in your possession.
I believe, that the rate of 75 kop. per line, which you have worked out with Iv. Mikh., has fully satisfied your demands.
You will agree, that the editorial board is in no position to set forth any sort of special and extraordinary guarantees even for such valuable contributers as yourself.
It is another matter concerning documents having a political significance, the purchase of which may exceed any special rate.


It has not been determined how matters with the newspaper “Mir” concluded and what material Ishevskiy provided it. The fact remains, however, that Ishevskiy trod firmly along the path of blackmail, knowing that it was not a political and economic organization he had in his clutches, but an espionage one.

Tuesday, June 2, 2009

The Lockhart Case (1918) - Part II

First Affidavit from Aleksandr Vladimirovich Fride

“Aleksandr Vladimirovich Fride, age 34, a former lieutenant-colonel, at the present time serving in the Administration of the Chief of Military Communications (Maliy Znemenskiy Alley, Mazinga School). I have been employed there since June 6. Prior to this, I had requested permission to take up a post since April and waited for an opening, which was offered to me the same month. I receive 600 roubles in salary. The papers, which my mother threw in the lavatory, contain information from various places in Russia. I collected this information like a journalist and for this, I had to supply this information by postal dispatch. A certain Johnston, who was departing from Moscow, entrusted me to collect all the materials, which were addressed to him and sent to my apartment. I became acquainted with this above-mentioned gentleman during a divorce case about two months ago. He left around two weeks ago for short amount of time, I do not where. Since his departure, I have received three letters, two of them written by the same hand – one apparently from the south, the other from the north. The papers, which my mother wanted to throw into the lavatory, are originals of letters sent to me and dropped in a box outside. Regarding compensation, Johnston and I had a conversation, but nothing concrete was determined and it was put off to the future. I met with him on Kuznetskiy bridge and he has been to our apartment three times. As for appearance, Johnston is older than I am and referred to himself as a commercial agent or attache. I was supposed to send a report to a prearranged address on Sheremetievskiy Alley and to another address on Myasnitskaya [Street]. I do not remember the addresses. The addresses were written on a small note and kept in my writing desk. I wanted to send [the report] today, in fact, but due to the search I was unable to to do so. I was to send it in duplicate to the addresses indicated to me. On the envelope, I was to mark down three code letters. I do not remember what letters these were. I intended to type the report and then send the letters either by courier or by myself. He, Johnston, assured me that this document would be received by someone among the Allies, specifically, the Americans.

My brother is employed by an economic association of officers and occupies a position as a bookkeeper or an accountant. My older sister went to find flour, while Maria was absent from Moscow for a short period of time. She also went to find flour and brought back bread. I think my sister Maria was gone for around two weeks and I do not where where she went. My relations with my sisters are good, but with my brother are cooler. I am married with no children but it has already been five years since my wife and I have stopped living together. (As evidence [during] questioning I was provided a copy of report No. 17). I acknowledge that it was sent off by my sister Maria. I confirm that report No. 1 … is not fictitious and that this report is authentic and that I did not send anything more than this. I know Zagryazhskiy well. He is a colleague employed in the same profession I had been engaged in earlier, in other words, he is a jurist. Zagryazhskiy Aleksandr Andreevich resides on Uspenskiy Alley. I do not remember at which address or apartment.

2/IX – [19]18.

A. Fride

Copy collated (signed)

During further questioning, A. V. Fride was forced to confess under the weight of evidence, that he had met with a certain Kalamatiano, in addition to the American, Johnston. He further admitted that he was in the service of the Americans at the same time he was employed by the Soviet authorities, and that he was in receipt of definite recompense.

Second Affidavit from Aleksandr Vladimirovich Fride

“Subsequent to my previous testimony, I can report that, in addition to Johnston, I know one other American gentleman, Kalamatiano. I know neither his first name, patronymic nor address.

We met on the street. Packets were sent to several addresses, since it was told to me that the packets could be lost and therefore it was necessary to send them through several individuals. The report concerning Petrograd, seized in this case, was obtained for me by Solyus, who went to Petrograd and provided me this information on my request. My sister does not deny having received money, most likely, as a nurse. Whether she received money as an informant providing information, I know nothing about this. My sister's trip to Vladikavkaz was arranged by Smith, the American Consul. They arranged this through Mr. Kalamatiano. After meeting Kalamatiano on the street, he visited my apartment and was introduced to my sister. I do not know Mr. Khvalynskiy. The name Malinko, apparently, Nikolai, I know. I am acquainted with him, but from where and under what circumstances we became acquainted, I do not know.

I know Mr. Potemkin. I became acquainted with him several years ago during a trip, before I entered the academy. I knew little of his family. He used to visit me in Moscow. He was at my apartment three or four times last month. It seems he did not tell me about the calamities and dire straits his family faced. I know Ostroslovskaya. She is a neighbour of ours and has absolutely never been to our apartment. I have spoken about where I am employed and earn my income, and have not concealed that I am acquainted with Americans. We know the name Otten and have sent packets to this address. In the Gimels writing desk there is a note which indicates where a packet was to be sent. I do not remember the address. Regarding the address on Milyutinskiy Alley, I affirm that I sent a packet there. I neither remember nor knew the name of the addressee. The packet was to be handed over to the director. I do not know the address Maliy Lubyanka. Financial consideration did not play any part in my case.

A. Fride

4/IX – [19]18.

Third Affidavit from Aleksandr Vladimirovich Fride

My acquaintance and collaborative activity with Mr. Kalamatiano started from the month of May. I received 500 roubles a month the first 2 or 3 months, then 750 and on one occasion received 1 thousand roubles. My tasks included informing him about the domestic, economic and political side of life. He also requested that I pay attention to everything describing the activity of the Germans in Russia. The material to be used for this consisted of rumours and conversations taking place and circulating among all layers of the population. This material was not to be critiqued, but merely reproduced absent those elements which were clearly ridiculous.

I invited A. A. Zagryazhskiy in view of the fact that Kalamatiano wanted exceptional individuals among his associates; individuals having a known social character and whom one could trust. Since this work involved obtaining information for friendly powers, and not hostile ones, I did not perceive it as being either illegal or even improper, and therefore invited Zagryazhskiy to participate in it. The question for both myself and for him was not the material reward, but that the work was not improper in regards Soviet power.

Before departing, Kalamatiano gave me 50 thousand roubles in 50 one thousand rouble notes for safekeeping. I placed the notes in my shaving kit behind the mirror (hidden) in the cover of this kit. When my room was being search, I was not there and they would not allow me to enter it. When they apparently reached the shaving kit, they called for me and asked how to open the mirror. I stated that I did not know. They asked me to move away and said they would break open the cover by force. Immediately after this, I heard the sound of breaking glass. I do not know whether the 50 thous. has been indicated in the records and I was not questioned about during the preceding interrogations. I promised Aleksei Potyomkin that I would arrange a position for him and was supposed to discuss this with Kalamatiano. I did, in fact, discuss Potyomkin with Kalamatiano.

Kalamatiano gave me Otten's address (3 Sheremetievskiy Alley). He gave me three address at that time. The second address was on Milyutinskiy Alley, I do not remember the street number, and the word Sonbon (monastery) was written. The third address was the American Consulate.

Solyus went to Petrograd, and upon his return he handed me the report, which I was to rewrite and then forward with additional information to the addresses indicated above.

I issued Kalamatiano an identity passes numbered 15594 and 10780. The latter, moreover, was signed by me, but was not registered. The assistant's signature on it was made by me.

It was known to me that Kalamatiano had traveled to Belebey. He said, that he would possibly meet with the American Consul. The first two pages were written by Fride in his own hand.

A. Fride

19/IX – [19]18.

Examined (signed)

After the arrest of her brother and sister, M. V. Fride changed her initial testimony, in which she denied everything. She began to confess that she had been to Otten's apartment on several occasions – not just the one time. She also confessed that she had carried letters to the French gymnasium on Milyutinskiy Alley and handed them over to the directors of this school, that she had carried letters to a certain Smit [Smith] on Vagankovskiy Alley, as well as to the American Consulate for Pull, the American Consul General in Moscow. On one occasion, she was also sent to Vladivkavkaz with a packet, for which she received 600 roub. from Smith.

Affidavit from Maria Vladimirovna Fride

I, Maria Vladimirovna Fride, have lived in Moscow permanently from the age of eight. At the present time, I am 31 years old. On July 30, old style, I left Moscow for Vladikavkaz, intending to visit a friend of mine, but it was not possible get through. Thus, I turned back at Astrakhan and returned to Moscow. I had no acquaintances in Astrakhan, and I lived at the Armenian seminary. I stayed in Astrakhan for a week and a half. In the detachment [the Armenian Seminary - skoblin], I became acquainted with Sheveleva Evgenia Arturovna, Doctor Melkumyanets and other individuals from the detachment, the names of whom I do not remember. Upon departing, Sheveleva entrusted me with a letter to give to her sister. I used to work at the clinic Dowager House, which is closed at present. I assert that the letter, which was entrusted to me, was given to me by an unknown individual. The letter was sealed and without an address on the envelope. I memorized the address [obviously given verbally – skoblin] and delivered it to the address, where I was also arrested.

I have two brothers: Aleksandr Vladimirovich and Mikhail Vladimirovich Fride. We all live together at No. 12 Durasovskiy Alley, apartment No. 2. Our sister, who is 42 years old, lives with us. At the present time, she has left for the Aleks [Aleksandrovskiy] railway. She works at the Aleks [Aleksandrovskiy] railway station as a typist. I, myself, am employed at the 5th Women's Gymnasium. My brother Alek Vlad [Aleksandr Vladimirovich] works for the staff in charge of the transfer of forces and entered service there around three months ago. Mikh Vl [Mikhail Vladimirovich] works for an economic society of former officers and is a member of the board. I am not and have not been a member of any political party. When the hospital [the Dowager clinic – skoblin] was eliminated, I received around 750 roub.. The remainder, I received at the Gymnasium at a rate of 150 roub. a month for three months with an additional 1000 roub. for four months [250 roubles per month - skoblin]. Upon leaving, I had 2000 roubles in my purse in order to meet expenses. [Maria Vladimirovna Fride is apparently being questioned regarding the origin and purpose of 2000 roubles found on her person upon being arrested - skoblin]

1/IX – [19]18.”

Supplementary to the previous testimony, I declare that the name Johnston is not known to me and I do not know any foreigners at all. I delivered two packets to the address indicated on Sheremteivskiy Alley. The first time was several days ago and the second time at the Sheremetievskiy address was during my arrest. I also delivered these same envelopes to another address. I saw the gentleman, Smit, at his apartment on Vagan'kov Alley, in Znamenka [district - skoblin], a corner building, top floor. A second address, where I delivered packets, was to the American Consulate at No. 4 or No. 6 Chernysh. [Chernyshevskogo - skoblin] Alley. I handed them to Mr. Pull personally.

There was one occasion in which I went to the French Gymnasium on Maliy Lubyanka with a packet. I gave the packet to the head mistress. I do not know her name. Pozdnyak and Zagryazhskiy would drop by to see us and my older brother. I have known them for two years. During my trip, I was supposed to deliver a packet to Vladikavkaz, addressed to the American Consul. Since I was unable to get through, however, I gave the packet to the Vice-Consul, Mr. Bari [Burri – skoblin], on Petrovskaya Street in Tsaritsyn. I carried a packet [text is ambiguous whether this was the same packet destined for Vladikavkaz or a different packet – skoblin] from the Vice-Consul and gave it to the Americ[an] Cons[ul], Smith, in Moscow. Payment for the delivery amounted to a free trip with a detachment of the Armen[ian] Nation[al] Committee and 600 roub. which I received from Mr. Smith at the beginning of August upon delivery of the packet.

M. Fride

2/IX – [19]18.

Copy verified (signed)

The testimony provided by M. and A. Fride led to the arrest of Solyus Pavel Maksimovich and Aleksandr Andreevich Zagryazhskiy, a former major-general and landowner, who was employed at the Tsentroplenbezh [Central Committee for POWs and Refugees – skoblin].

Aleksandr Klavdievich Khvalynskiy and Aleksandr Vasilievich Potyomkin were also detained as a result of an ambush set at the Fride apartment. Measures were also taken to search for Kalamatiano-Serpovskiy and a search was conducted at the residence of the head mistress of the French Gymnasium, Zh. Morenz, which was located in the Gymnasium on Milyutinskiy Alley. During the search of this apartment, a cipher code and coded letters were discovered sewn into the fabric of the chairs and the couches as well as in the suits belonging Lorenz's husband – the French citizen, Henrik Vertamont. Thirty nine dynamite percussion caps were also discovered as well as 28,000 roubles, of which 16 thousand were discovered in Vertamont's walking stick along with a large number of general staff maps (Murmansk, Odessa, Kiev and areas occupied by the Czechoslovaks).Vertamont himself had time to escape and was not detained.

Affidavit from Commissar Val'ter

On 1 September 1918, I – as a commissar of the VChK - conducted a search of the apartment of the French citizen Henrik Vertamont at No. 18 Milyutinskiy Alley, according to order No. 6371.

During the search, I discovered various sorts of papers, a cipher, coded letters and telegrams (in French) – almost all of them sewn into the fabric of the chairs and couches and also in suits. Gun-cotton was also discovered in 3 jars located under some coffee with a weight of 4 pounds 25 zolotniks each [1 Russian pound = 409.5 grams, 1 zolotnik = 4.26 grams – skoblin]. One tin container weighing 5 pounds 73 zolotniks also had 39 dynamite percussion caps.

Citizen Vertamont himself was not arrested, in view of the fact that he was not at home nor did he appear.

Commissar Val'ter

On 18 September 1918, Ksenophont [sic – Xenophon] Dmitrievich Kalamatiano was arrested during an ambush at the former American General Consulate. He had been residing at apartment No. 5, belonging to Ekaterina Sergeevna Kozhina at 8 Tolstovskiy Alley, under the passport of Sergei Nikolaevich Serpovskiy. In Kalamatiano's walking stick were found receipts and a cipher code, which served as a basis for uncovering the entire counter-revolutionary espionage organization of the Anglo-French-American imperialists, which was created with the goal of destroying Workers-Peasants' power in Russia. Many receipts concerning the payments given to his spies were found in the walking stick. Two of these receipts are printed below:

Examples of the receipts concerning the payment of Kalamatiano's spies.

Received payment of a thousand roubles from No. 15 for up to and including August 23. No. 5, 20/VIII”.

“Received 1500 roub. (one thousand five hundred) from No. 15 on August 20. No. 31”.

The receipts do not indicate the either the first or last name of the persons receiving payment, nor do they mention from whom it was received. Numbers appeared instead of names.

Kalamatiano, at first, attempted to justify himself by every means possible, but eventually – under the weight of the evidence – he was forced to decipher the coded letters found in his walking cane. After this, it became clear that a counter-revolutionary organization of the Anglo-French imperialists was enveloping the whole of Russia, including those areas under German occupation.

Record of the Testimony provided by Ksenofont [sic] Kalamatiano, aka Serpovskiy

Regarding the receipt notes and reports found in my walking cane, I may testify as follows:

The receipts, in which numbers sign as having received money from a number 15, these are receipts from informants, who have provided me with information of an economic and political nature.

Number 15 – this is I

Number 8 concealed Ivanov Leonid Alekseevich in Minsk

Number 9 – Nikibroraki, 26 Tyomniy Alley, apt. 16 or 14

Number 10 – Potyomkin Al. Vas. (Smolensk)

Number 11 – Khvalynskiy – 600 r. a month

Numbers 12, 13, and 14 all ceased operations

Number 16 – Kazakov – Crimea

Number 18 – Skvortsov – Khar'kov

Number 20 – Angin – Vinnitsa (Moscow, 28 Tyopliy Alley, apt. 16 or 18)

Number 21 – Moller – Odessa

Number 22 – Florinskiy

Number 24 – Zagryazhskiy

Number 26 – Solyus – 600 r. a month

Number 5 – Fride Aleksandr Vladimirovich

Number 4 – Zbatskiy Boris Somolonovich

Fride was recently receiving a thousand roubles a month. I gave him a reserve of 50,000 for payments. I gave Zagryazhskiy 20,000 for safekeeping. Solyus made one trip to Bryansk and was supposed to go to Petrozavodsk.

Number 17 – Gashtenberg – Rostov

Number 1 – Karpov – Kiev

All of these persons were to furnish information concerning the state of affairs in the region to which they were assigned, such as: the political mood of the population, which parties are conducting agitation against Soviet power, the state of transport, attitude of the population towards the Allies and the Germans, the general economic situation and so on. A sample list of questions regarding the Ukraine were found upon my person and are available in this case.

18-19/IX – [19]18.

I have provided the foregoing testimony in order to establish the fact that the individuals, whom I have indicated, carried out no active operations or agitation on my instructions against the local Soviet authorities in Russia.

K. D. Kalamatiano

In addition to deciphering the documents and names of the spies, which were concealed by numbers, Kalamatiano also deciphered coded words, which served for the transmission of espionage telegrams.

Code words which were used by Kalamatiano's agents

Austro-Hungarians – Metallurgical industry

Austro-Slavs – Food situation

Germans – Sugar industry

German forces – Sugar factories

Numerical identification of forces – Number of pounds of sugar, syrup, candy and their prices (for example, No. 331 and 71 – 331 p. [pood] at 71 r.[roubles])

Mobilization of Russians for the Germans – Bank operation

Enlisting – deposits

quantity – sum of deposits

Percent of foreign-born in German forces – Falsification of sugar

Morale of forces – Situation and condition of sugar industry

Transfer from the front – Emigration of foreigners to the Ukraine

Desertion – Emigration from Ukraine

Officers – NCOs – 1. engineers 2. workers

Opinion of officers and German soldiers – Attitude of engineers and workers to the situation of industry (metallurgical or sugar)

Artillery units of the slavs, their number – Manufactured goods and their prices

The testimony provided by Kalamatiano and the documents found on his person gave the All-Russian Extraordinary Commission the opportunity to arrest Leonid Aleksandrovich Ivanov, Evgenii Mikhailovich Golitsyn, Dmitrii Aleksandrovich Ishevskiy and Pyotr Dmitrevich Politkovskiy. The former American Consul, William Kemberg-Higgs [Camber-Higgs – skoblin] was also arrested.

Kalamatiano's testimony forced Zagryazhskiy, who had been arrested in an ambush at Fride's apartment on September 2, to confess that he had been in contact with Kalamatiano and Fride and had received payment of 750 roubles for his services as well as 20,000 roubles for the paying intelligence agents, which had been denoted by numbers. During a subsequent search conducted at Zagryazhskiy's apartment at 6 Bol'shaya Usmenskaya on September 20, 20,000 roubles were in fact discovered. Before this, Zaryazhskiy, of course, had claimed that Fride had never spoken to him about his activities with the Americans.

Kalamatiano's testimony also led to the confession of the retired Moscow customs official, Pavel Maksimovich Solyus, who had been arrested in an ambush at A. V. Fride's apartment on September 5. Prior this, Solyus had completely denied any involvement with the counter-revolutionary organization of Kalamatiano-Lockhart & Co. After he was presented with the intelligence report he had compiled concerning the state of affairs in Sestroretsk, Petrograd and Petrozavodsk, which E. Fride had tried to destroy in the lavatory during a search, Solyus changed his initial testimony. Solyus started to claim that the “note” found at the Fride apartment was the only one and that he had compiled it from the comments made by various persons, as he had not been to those places himself for which he was providing information. It was only during questioning on September 19, when Solyus' identification number was already known (26 – from Kalamatiano's agent numbering system), that he confessed that he had traveled to Petrograd on Fride's instructions, for which he received an advance of 500 roubles.

Further testimony, established connections, and materials found with Kalamatiano opened up the counter-revolutionary organization more and more. It turns out that many of those who had been arrested during the first days of September were to be found among Kalamatiano's list of agents and among the receipts found on Kalamatiano concerning payments were their receipts as well. Thus, those persons whom Fride and Zagryazhskiy had carefully concealed, being experienced counter-revolutionaries, were given up by Kalamatiano.

Kalamatiano's arrest significantly advanced the the investigation and further unraveling of the Lockhart case.

In addition to the disclosure of all of his agents, an ambushed conducted at Kalamatiano's conspiratorial apartment at 8 Tolstovskiy Alley, where he lived under the name Serpovskiy, netted an individual, who presented papers in the name of a Czech citizen, Aleksei Aloisivich Lingart. It subsequently turned out that this individual was not whom he claimed to be. Under questioning, he stated that he was not Lingart, but Josef Josefovich Pshenichko – a Czech. The investigation was unable to establish whether he was indeed Pshenichko, or whether he was concealing his identity under this name as well. In presenting documents identifying himself as Lingart, Pshenichko explained that he had had all his documents proving his identity stolen while on a tram and that consequently, he – Pshenichko – asked one of his close acquaintances to lend him his identification card on a temporary basis. He explained his appearance at Kalamatiano's (Serpovskiy's) apartment by stating he had sought shelter. A search of Pshenichko's suitcase subsequently turned up notes indicating he was a member of the counter-revolutionary organization, and had been in contact with Kalamatiano in the latter's capacity as the chief agent of the American-Anglo-French imperialists, who had supported the Czechoslovak uprising. As a result of an investigation, it was established Pshenichko had hidden himself at the apartment of the Czechs, Yaroslav Vyacheslavovich Shmenets and Stanislav Fomich Jellinek, at 30 Novoslobodskaya Street.

The retired major-general, Politkovskiy Pyotr Dmitrievich, who was employed at the Consumers' Association of Sergeevsk district in Kursk, was also arrested, thanks to a letter discovered during a search of Kalamatiano's residence. The letter, which led to his arrest, contained the following:

“Dear Konstantin Dmitrievich.

I send you my sincere thanks for your kind memory and attention and that you allowed me the possibility to become acquainted with the agreeable Aleksandr Vasilievich, who it also turns out was a comrade of mine from school. Unfortunately, I was unable to render much assistance for him, although I have sent him to two or three persons, who – in my opinion – may be useful. I ask once more today, what information you require, and – if successful – I will gather it and write you. I wish you all the best, respectfully yours

P. Politkovskiy

Kursk, 18 Pochtovaya St.

12 May 1918.”

As a result of Kalamatiano's testimony, it was discerned that the “agreeable Aleksandr Vasilievich”, about whom Politkovskiy wrote, was the brother of Aleksei Vasilievich Potyomkin, who was under arrest, and that he was employed by Kalamatiano as an intelligence agent.

Politkovskiy confessed during questioning, that he had in fact sent Aleksandr Vasilievich Potyomkin to several persons in order to obtain information concerning exports and imports, but he denied any knowledge of counter-revolutionary espionage activity.

On September 7, Kemberg-Khiggs [hereafter, Camber-Higgs – skoblin], a British national, was arrested. His office at 2 Teatral'niy Thoroughfare constituted a rendezvous point for Kalamatiano's counter-revolutionary espionage organization. From the testimony provided by Potyomkin and Golitsyn, it was obvious that Camber-Higgs office had been specifically indicated to them as a place of meeting and receiving duties.

Ol'ga Dmitrievna Starzhevskaya and Maksim Vasileivich Trester were also discovered to be persons, who had assisted Reilly in his espionage activities.

Starzhevskaya worked at the Organization Department of the VTsIK [All-Russian Central Executive Committee] as a typist. Arrested on September 12, she testified that she knew Reilly as Konstantin Pavlovich Massino and discovered his real name only recently.

While being questioned on September 14, Starzhevskaya testified that she would see Reilly at her apartment, or meet with him somewhere in a public garden or at the restaurant Praga. Reilly suggested she rent an apartment on Malaya Bronaya and he arrived at this apartment for the first time on September 3. Before renting this apartment, Reilly looked it over and left his passport for the registration. He took his passport with him upon departing on 3-4 September. Starzhevskaya also admitted that Reilly gave her 20,000 roub. for furnishing the apartment.

Another one of Reilly's officials was Maksim Vasilievich Trester – the director of a motor unit of the Moscow Military District. Trester drove Reilly in automobile No. 1199 of the Moscow Military District motor depot and lent him 15,000 roubles on receipt.

The receipt, according to which Reilly had received the 15,000 roubles from Tester, stated:

Copy in translation:

Moscow, 6 July 1918.

Sidney G. Reilly 120, Broadway

New York, Nor. Amer. Unit. St.

Received from M. V. Trester 15,000 roub. (fifteen thousand roub.), for which I request that either he or his representative be paid 1500 dollars (fifteen....dollars).

Sidney G. Reilly

As is obvious from the receipt, Trester was one of those “wealthy people”, whom Reilly spoke about to Berzin, who would lend him money for subverting unit commanders and for assisting counter-revolutionary activities in general .This money was to be returned to them abroad.

One must also add a few remarks concerning the arrest of Lockhart himself, the ambush at the former American Consulate (Chernyshevskiy Alley), where the American Consul General, Pull, the French General Consul, Grenard and many others (French, British and American officers) hid out, as well as the discovery of a letter written by the French citizen Rene Marchand to the President of the French Republic.

During the night of August 31 – September 1, Cheka officials showed up at apartment No. 24, 19 Khlebniy Alley.

This apartment had already been placed under strict observation from the beginning of the Lockhart case as suspicious persons and persons already established as being active members of the counter-revolutionary espionage organization of Lockhart, Pull, Grenard and Co. would constantly visit this apartment. There was no doubt that Lockhart's apartment was the headquarters of this espionage organization. At Lockhart's apartment were found several British persons and the Russian national, Baroness Benkendorff. Lockhart did not give his name to the Cheka officials and did not protest his arrest as a British diplomatic representative.

Thus, all persons found in his apartment, including Lockhart himself, were conveyed to the Cheka.

When it became clear during questioning, that one of the arrested persons was the British diplomatic representative Lockhart, the latter was told, that he may not be questioned. But in view of the fact that there was serious evidence against him regarding his participation in counter-revolutionary activity against Soviet Russia, he was told that he could hear the charges against him and provide explanations if he wished. Lockhart agreed.

After hearing the account of his conversation with comrade Berzin and the other facts of the plot and being presented with the authorization he had given to the captain of the Lettish Rifles, Krish Kronkal, Lockhart finally admitted that everything was true, but that he had not acted on his own initiative but on a suggestion made by his own government.

The suggestion was made that Lockhart make a declaration on paper, but he declined, averring that he was a diplomatic official of the government of Great Britain and that he did not possess the official right to make a declaration. He stated, therefore, that first of all he had to speak with his counsel, the Dutch Consul, and that all future discussion with the Cheka would go through him. After making this statement, Lockhart was released.

Several days later, Lockhart approached the Deputy Peoples Commissar for Foreign Affairs, comrade Karakhan, requesting a meeting with me, and inquired whether I would agree to talk with him on a non-official basis, simply man to man. Agreement was given and a time was set for the meeting. Before conversing, however, Lockhart demanded a gentleman's agreement that the conversation that would take place between us would remain secret.

I gave him my word, that our conversation would remain secret, unless he were to engage in a slanderous campaign against Soviet Russia, as was being done by all the other agents of international capital through the aegis of the yellow press of their countries.

During those days, which followed upon the elimination of the Lockhart plot, news was received that the representative of Soviet power in Great Britain, comrade Litvinov, had been arrested in London. Litivinov had been arrested without the presentation of any charges. He had not been engaged in military conspiracies. He had not arranged for the murder of leaders of the British bourgeois state and had not planned to arrest the British parliament, as Lockhart's agents had done in Soviet Russia. Nevertheless, he was arrested.

It became necessary to respond to such a move on the part of the British imperialists by a similar action. Lockhart was arrested once more and steps were taken to arrest the other diplomatic conspirators against Soviet power, such as the French Consul General Grenard and the American Consul, Pull.

I repeat, that, in addition to that already known from comrade Berzin, that provided by external observation, and those materials which had been seized in this case, it had also become known to Cheka that a meeting had taken place at the residence of the American Consul General, Pull, on August 25. It was also known that this meeting discussed the issue of how to maintain espionage activity after the diplomatic representatives of the imperialist Entente had departed. However, the arrest of Grenard, Pull, Lavergne and the many other French and British officers guilty in this plot was no easy matter. After Litvinov had been arrested in London, the American diplomats contrived to hide themselves in the American Consulate located on Chernyshevskiy Alley. In order to prevent themselves being taken from there, the Norwegian flag was raised over the building. The representatives of neutral Norway took it upon themselves to defend those who were conspiring against Soviet Russia. Negotiations commenced for the extradition of Grenard, Lavergne, Pull and others from the protection of extraterritoriality, but the Norwegian Consulate flatly refused. The building was then surrounded on all side by Cheka agents and no one was allowed out without a careful scrutiny of documents, while entry into the Consulate was categorically forbidden. The cordon around the Consulate continued for around two weeks, until an offer arrived from the Entente to exchange the convicted conspirators, including Lockhart himself and several other citizens of the Entente, for Bolsheviks located in Britain, France and America. The offer was accepted by the Commissariat of Foreign Affairs and those Entente officials, who had been placed under a cordon and subject to extradition, were sent to the train station for Petrograd, Finland and beyond.

Both the former chief of the British Mission, P. B. Lockhart, and the former French Consul General, Grenard, were among those manifest conspirators connected to the case who were released.

A search conducted at the Arbat, where Grenard, Lavergne and several other officials from the French Mission and some well-known French citizens lived, yielded an unexpected discovery in the form of a letter from Rene Marchand to the French President. (This letter will be presented in its entirety below).

Despite all the measures taken regarding the arrest of all persons connected to the Lockhart plot, many of them nevertheless succeeded in escaping. This included Sidney Reilly, as the chief representative of British imperialism – the “troika”, which was supposed to continue the subversive counter-revolutionary affair of the Entente consulates after the latter's departure. Vertamont, the representative of the French Consulate and member of the mentioned “troika” also fled. These Entente spies managed to flee primarily due to the energetic assistance rendered by the representatives of other capitalist countries, which had officially declared themselves neutral.

A Tale of Political-Economic Intrigue

The conspirators of international capitalism, who had been caught at the scene of the crime, were quite dismayed, but not one of the criminals, who passed through the Cheka, presented a more pitiable spectacle of cowardice than that of Lockhart, the representative of Great Britain – the sovereign of half the world. Prior to his arrest, Lockhart would proclaim from every housetop that he was conducting a campaign for the recognition of Soviet power. Many liberal and radical-minded foreigners, such as Raymond Robins, trusted Lockhart to be sincere, and cloaked by this trust, Lockhart conducted his secret activities. But then, suddenly, he was caught and caught red-handed, and there was no possibility of extricating himself, even if he had all the power in the world. And like a wretched coward, Lockhart protested, that he had not acted on his own volition, but on suggestions made to him from his government, and besides, a number of British missions – military, transport and so on – had been active. He, of course, was merely the the representative of the political mission.

In private conversations with myself and the Deputy Peoples' Commissar of Foreign Affairs, comrade Karakhan, Lockhart did not hide or deny that he had met with comrade Berzin, and did not deny that he had met with Grenard and had a meeting with the American Consul, Pull. In private conversations, Lockhart was a wretched individual, several times even taking up a pen in order to write down everything that had transpired, to write the whole truth about Berzin, and about his government. But being the pathetic careerist that he was, he stood like a mule caught between two bales of hay, drawn to the one side by British and world imperialism, and to the other by new burgeoning world. And each time he spoke about this new burgeoning world, about its victories, and about his – Lockhart's – abnormal situation – even in that world in which he served, that is, the capitalist world, Lockhart would seize a pen in order to set down the whole truth. Then, after a few minutes had passed, the wretched donkey would be drawn once more to other bale of hay, and toss the pen away.

Once, after visiting Lockhart in the Kremlin, Karakhan told me that Lockhart had already begun to write his testimony. Several days passed by, however and Lockhart, still not finished, had torn up what he had written: he remained mired in his old world. He tossed out the idea, that if he were to disclose the whole truth concerning his government, about that shameful role, which his government had played in Soviet Russia while waving the banner of saving Russia, then – after the victory of the proletariat – his career path would be open in his own country.

Soon, however, his government made attempts to free him and have him returned to England in exchange for supporters and officials of Soviet Russia, whom England would return to Russia.

But here, in Soviet Russia, there remained the evidence against the British imperialists and their agents. This evidence was supported by the wealth of material which was found on Kalamatiano, Fride and the other arrested plotters. This evidence was of such weight that it was impossible to deny the existence of an illegal organization on the part of the Entente – even in the absence of comrade Berzin's testimony.

Kalamatiano could not conceal the fact that the codes and letters of a conspiratorial nature, found in his walking stick, were connected with the known organization. Receipts concerning the payment of monies, cited above, as well as the papers, on which Kalamatiano recorded 32 agents by number, attest to the fact that Kalamatiano's organization had an entire complement of collaborators and – I repeat – it was impossible to deny the existence of this illegal organization. While being questioned a second time, Kalamatiano suddenly regained his memory and began to develop a new idea – that while his organization did indeed exist, it was of a purely political and economic nature. We present below Kalamatiano's own testimony concerning his activities in Soviet Russia and about the origins of his political-economic organization.